From Novice to Master

Graphic created by Spear-Ellinwood (2014), inspired by and adapted from Hoffman (1998) and Chi (2006).


Chi M T H. Two Approaches to the Study of Experts’ Characteristics. In, K A Ericsson, N Charness, P J Feltovich & R R Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook Of Expertise And Expert Performance; 2006.

Hoffman R R. How Can Expertise be Defined? Implications of Research From Cognitive Psychology. In R. Williams, W. Faulkner & J. Fleck (Eds.), Exploring Expertise (pp. 81–100), Edinburgh, Scotland: University of Edinburgh Press; 1998.