Feedback References

Constructive feedback, widely acknowledged and confirmed by research, guides learners in developing both content knolwedge and procedural skills, when given at a time when learners can incorporate it into the formation of a set of practices aimed at improved performance. 

Below is a list of scholarly articles concerning feedback, its role in student development as well as examples of effective approaches. This list is not exhaustive; it is meant to launch your inquiry into the feedback process. 


  • Back A, Arnold RM, Tulsky JA, Baile WF & Edwards K. "Could I add something?": Teaching communication by itnervening in real during a clinical encounter. Acad Med 2010 Jun; 85(6):1048-51; 2010.

  • Becker Y. What do clinician encounter cards really mean? Journal of Surgical Research, 146(1): 1-2; 2008

  • Bienstock JL, Katz NT, Cox SM, Hueppchen N, Erickson S & Puscheck EE. To the point: Medical education reviews—providing feedback. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology,196(6): 508-513; 2007

  • Branch WT & Paranjape A. Feedback and Reflection: Teaching Methods for Clinical Settings. Academic Medicine  77(12):1185–1188; 2002.

  • Cantillon P, Sargeant J, Teaching Rounds, Giving Feedback in clinical settings. BMJ; November 2008; 337(7681), pp. 1292-1294; 2008.

  • Chan PE, Konrad M, Gonzalez V, Peters MT & Ressa VA. The Critical Role of Feedback in Formative Instructional Practices. Intervention in School and Clinic:1-9; 2014.

  • Elnicki D, Cooper A, Medical Students' Perceptions of the Elements of Effective Inpatient Teaching by Attending Physicians and Housestaff ; J Gen Intern Med. 2005 July; 20(7): 635–639; 2005.

  • Ende J. Feedback in Clinical Medical Education. JAMA 250(6); 1983.

  • Gigante J, Dell M & Sharkey, A. Getting Beyond “Good Job”: How to Give Effective Feedback; Pediatrics 127(2); February, 2011.

  • Hatem C. Teaching to Promote Professionalism. Acad Med 2003; (7):709.

  • Hewson M, Little M, Giving Feedback in Medical Education; J Gen Intern Med. 1998 February; 13(2): 111–116; 1998.

  • Jamshidi R & Ozgediz D. Medical student teaching: A peer-to-peer toolbox for time-constrained resident educators. Journal of Surgical Education, 65(2), 95-98; 2008

  • Katz P. Providing feedback; Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. Apr;5(2):347-55; 1995.

  • Lucas J & James S. Providing Difficult Feedback: TIPS for the Problem Learner. Fam Med 35(8):544-6; 2003.

  • Paukert JL, Richards ML & Olney C.  An encounter card system for increasing feedback to students. The American Journal of Surgery 183(3), 300-304; 2002.

  • Schultz KW, Kirby J, Delva D, Godwin M, Verma S, Birtwhistle R, Knapper C & Seguin R. Medical Students' and Residents' preferred site characteristics and preceptor behaviours for learning in the ambulatory setting: a cross-sectional survey; BMC Medical Education 4:12; 2004.

  • Schute VJ. Focus on Formative Feedback. Review of Educational Research March 78:153-189; 2008.

  • Sherry, L., & Billig, S. H. (2008). Instructional Conversations: Designing Dialogue to Deepen Learning. In R. Luppicini (Ed.), Handbook of Conversation Design for Instructional Applications (pp. 144-160). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-59904-597-9.ch010

  • Sousa A, Wagner DP, Henry RC & Davis EM. Better data for teachers, better data for learners, better patient care: college-wide assessment at Michigan State University‟s College of Human Medicine. Medical Education Online 16: 5926; 2011.

  • Stufflebeam DL &  Shinkfield AJ. Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications. John Wiley & Sons; 2007.

  • Vaughn L, Baker RC & DeWitt TG. The Problem Learner. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 10(4), 217-222; 1998.

  • Wood B. Feedback: A Key Feature of Medical Training. Radiology April 215:1 17-19; 2000.

​Related Resources

Printable References Feedback Guide