References on Cognitive Error


  • Balla J, Heneghan C, Goyder C & Thompson M. Identifying early warning signs for diagnostic errors in primary care: A qualitative study. BMJ Open, 2(5); 2012.

  • Bond W, Schwartz L, Weaver K, Levick D, Giuliano M & Graber M. Differential diagnosis generators: An evaluation of currently available computer programs.  J Gen Intern Med. 27 (2):213-9; 2012.

  • Croskerry P. The Importance of Cognitive Errors in Diagnosis and Strategies to Minimize Them. Academic Medicine, 78(8), p 775‐780 (August 2003).

  • Croskerry P. Cognitive Forcing Strategies in Clinical Decision‐making. Ann Emerg Med. 41:110‐120; 2003.

  • Flowerdew L, Brown R, Vincent C & Woloshynowych M. Development and validation of a tool to assess emergency physicians' nontechnical skills. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 59(5), 376-385.e4; 2012.

  • Flowerdew L, Brown R, Vincent C & Woloshynowych M. Identifying nontechnical skills associated with safety in the emergency department: A scoping review of the literature. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 59(5), 386-394; 2012.

  • Graber ML, Kissam S, Payne VL, Meyer A ND, Sorensen A, Lenfestey N, Tant E, Kerm H, LaBresh K & Signh H. Cognitive interventions to reduce diagnostic error: A narrative review. BMJ Quality & Safety, 21(7), 535-557; 2012.

  • Ogdie AR, Reilly JB, Pang WG, Keddem S, Barg FK, Von Feldt JM, et al. Seen through their eyes: Residents’ reflections on the cognitive and contextual components of diagnostic errors in medicine. Acad Med. 87(10):1361-7; 2012.

  • Piper LE. The ethical leadership challenge to do no harm: The cognitive imperativeHealth Care Management 31(1):25-33; 2012.

  • Plack MM & Greenberg L. The Reflective Practitioner: Reaching for Excellence in Practice. PEDIATRICS 116(6), pp. 1546 -1552 (doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0209); 2005*.

  • Poon E, Kachalia A, Puopolo A, Gandhi T & Studdert D. Cognitive errors and logistical breakdowns contributing to missed and delayed diagnoses of breast and colorectal cancers: A process analysis of closed malpractice claims. J Gen Intern Med. 27(11):1416-23; 2012

  • Saber Tehrani, et al. An analysis of diagnostic error - 25-Year summary of US malpractice claims for diagnostic errors 1986–2010: An analysis from the National Practitioner Data Bank. BMJ Quality and Safety Online First, Apr 2013.

  • Stiegler MP, Neelankavil JP, Canales C & Dhillon A. (2012). Cognitive errors detected in anaesthesiology: A literature review and pilot study. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 108(2), 229-235; 2013.

  • Stiegler MP. Cognitive errors in anesthesiology: Making mistakes even when we “Know” better. American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting; 2011.

  • Witte MH, Crown P, Bernas M & Witte CL. Lessons learned from Ignorance. In The Virtues of Ignorance: Complexity, Sustainability, and the Limits of Knowledge. Vitek B, Ed., pp. 251-273; 2008.

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