What are Threads and Topics?

Vertical Integration

Vertical integration is the incorporation of concepts in course/block or clerkship (curriculum) content. Surgical procedural skills, for example, is content incorporated as essential content in the Clinical Skills course. Cardiology is content in the CPR (Cardio-Pulmonary-Renal) block.

Horizontal Integration

Horizontal integration represents  thread material found within and connecting various curricular components. Awareness of cultural differences and how social determinants affect health care delivery and outcomes is material that is not the subject of a particular course but fundamental to professional practice. Therefore, it is embeded in many components of the curriculum and provides connectivity among these experiences.


  • Snyman WD & Kroon J. Vertical and horizontal integration of knowledge and skills – a working model. European Journal of Dental Education 9: 26–31; 2005.  

  • Marreez YMAH, Wells M, Eisen A, Rosenberg L, Park D, Schaller F, Turner J & Krishna R. Towards Integrating Basic and Clinical Sciences: Our Experience at Touro University Nevada. Medical Science Educator 23(4):595-606; 2013.

Related Resources

COM-T Threads Humanities